Advocacy & Policy

Research Reports

Research Reports Subject Areas

Aboriginal, First Nations, Métis & Inuit Women


Walking Together: Ontario’s Long-Term Strategy to End Violence Against Indigenous Women

Government of Canada, Tracy Maccharles & David Zimmer, 2016

This report talks about violence against Indigenous women and how the effects of colonialism are still being felt today through poverty, social isolation and insecurity. It provides recommendations to end the cycle of violence against Indigenous women and to ensure that they live with safety and respect. Some of the recommendations are supporting children, policing/justice, improving data, community safety and leadership.

First Peoples, Second Class Treatment: The role of racism in the health and well-being of Indigenous peoples in Canada

Dr. Billie Allan & Dr. Janet Smylie, 2015

This paper examines racism and colonization as root determinants of Indigenous/non-Indigenous health inequities. A literature review was conducted describing Indigenous peoples’ experiences of racism and the links to health, well-being, and access to health care. Responses and interventions are aimed at addressing the impact of racism at the individual, community, health services and policy levels.

Community Action Tool-kit: Kitchen Table Dialogue Guide

Reconciliation Canada, 2014

This guide provides Canadians with the opportunity to gather their friends, family, neighbours and/or colleagues and join the dialogue on reconciliation. A do-it-yourself framework is provided to create space for constructive conversation.

Community Action Tool-kit: Plan Your Own Event

Reconciliation Canada, 2014

A guide to organizing reconciliation events in the community in order to raise awareness and demonstrate community support for reconciliation.

Community Action Tool-Kit: Young Adult Voices – Call to Action

Reconciliation Canada, 2014

Reconciliation Canada calls upon senior high school student leaders to encourage openness and renewed relationships between Aboriginal peoples and all Canadians. Tool-kit includes reconciliation engagement ideas and materials needed to implement them.

Community Action Tool-Kit: Young Leaders – Post-Secondary Student Unions, Associations and Clubs

Reconciliation Canada, 2014

Reconciliation Canada calls upon post-secondary student unions, associations and clubs to encourage openness and renewed relationships between Aboriginal peoples and all Canadians. Tool-kit includes reconciliation engagement ideas and materials needed to implement them.

Origins of Lateral Violence in Aboriginal Communities: A Preliminary Study of Student-to-Student Abuse in Residential Schools

Aboriginal Healing Foundation, Amy Bombay, Kim Matheson, and Hymie Anisman, 2014

This study is the first to investigate how peer abuse during residential schooling has affected Survivors and their families and communities. Interviews with service providers who worked with residential school Survivors were conducted.

Family Law Information for Aboriginal Families

Government of Ontario, March 2013

A resource offering information on legal issues that arise upon separation and divorce. It focuses on family law for Aboriginal families.


Indigenous Women’s Rights and the Inter-American System: A Toolkit on Mechanisms (Information Notes #1- 4)

Ellen-Rose Kambel, Forest Peoples Programme, March 2015

A guide designed to help Indigenous women and their advocates navigate through the Inter-American System and strengthen the rights of Indigenous women. It contains information notes #1-4, explaining the different aspects of the Inter-American human rights system.

Indigenous Women’s Rights and the Inter-American System: A Toolkit on Mechanisms (Information Notes #5 - 8)

Andrea Galindo, Forest Peoples Programme, March 2015

The second part of a guide designed to help Indigenous women and their advocates navigate through the Inter-American System and strengthen the rights of Indigenous women. It contains information notes #5-8, explaining the process of submitting a petition/case to the Inter-American human rights system.

Reconciliation Action Plan

YWCA Canberra, August 2014

This Reconciliation Action Plan builds on achievements and lessons learned from previous plans. It provides a vehicle for learning and a process of engaging with reconciliation in a meaningful way, on both a personal and organizational level.

Aboriginal, First Nations, Métis & Inuit Women — Economic Security


Poverty or Prosperity: Indigenous children in Canada

D. Macdonald & D. Wilson, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, June 2013

This report contrasts the levels of poverty between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children and critiques Federal-Provincial lack of initiative and support in providing essential basic services on reserves to First Nation communities. It further assesses Canada’s worldwide performance in addressing child poverty in comparison to other countries.

Honouring the Children – Shadow Report

First Nations Child and Family Caring Society of Canada, KAIROS: Canadian Ecumenical Justice Initiatives, 2011

Recommendations made to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of Child in consideration of Canada’s periodic review by the First Nations Child & Family Caring Society of Canada and KAIROS.

The Income Gap Between Aboriginal Peoples and the Rest of Canada

D. Wilson & D. Macdonald, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, April 2010

Measures the income gap between Aboriginal peoples and rest of Canadians. Documents how Aboriginal women with university education have closed the income gap with non-Aboriginal women.

Advocacy, Media and Activism


Reporting on Sexual Assault: A Toolkit for Canadian Media

Femifesto, 2014

This toolkit includes information on sexual assault and rape culture, resources for journalists, statistics on sexual assault and constructive reviews of selected articles on sexual assault that appeared in mainstream Canadian media from 2010-2013. This toolkit works within an intersectional lens to provide resources and knowledge in order to contribute to a public discourse on rape and sexual assault that is supportive of survivors.

Communications and Activism: A Quick Guide to Advocacy and Media

Canadian Federation of University Women

This guide provides information on using traditional media and new media (such as Twitter, Facebook, blog posts) for activism and advocacy. It also includes steps to successful advocacy, tips for meeting with a legislator and worksheets on setting media goals.


Effective Strategies for Using Video in Advocacy


This document offers information regarding the use of video as a complementary tool for advocacy in combination with other methodologies such as litigation, research and monitoring. This document aims to develop advocacy strategies which include the use of video, such as video reports, video as a grassroots mobilizing tool and deterrent of further abuse.

Child Care


Feasibility Study of Universal Affordable Day Care in The Northwest Territories

Kerry McCuaig, Zeenat Janmohamed, Elizabeth Dhuey, Emis Akbari, June 2015

This report explores options for childcare delivery and funding mechanisms in the Northwest Territories to streamline administration and better support program stability. It analyzes funding and policy frameworks as well as assesses stakeholder capacity for service change. This report also conducts a cost vs. benefit analysis when identifying the potential of Universal and Affordable Childcare.

The state of early childhood education and care in Canada 2012

Carolyn Ferns & Martha Friendly, June 2014

This report outlines key trends, patterns and policy shifts in Canadian early childhood education and child care in 2012. Areas of focus include the demographic context, child care spaces, public funding, parent fees, early education, ownership, Aboriginal child care, and human resources.

Separation and Divorce: Child Support

CLEO Family Law Series, March 2014

CLEO family law offers an informational manual with legal information concerning child support access during separation and divorce.

Early childhood education has widespread and long lasting benefits: Special report

TD Economics, November 2012

Based on extensive literature reviews which show the costs and benefits of early childhood education that has lifelong rewards for children, families and economy. Investment in early education will reduce disparities in social inequalities that will optimize economic development.

A response to the Ministry of Education Modernizing Child Care in Ontario Discussion Paper

Association of Early Childhood Educators Ontario, September 2012

Input to the Ministry of Education from Ontario’s early learning and child care community on wages, and working conditions, child care legislative and regulatory frameworks, professional development and early childhood learning environments as issues of particular concern to early childhood educators.

Separation and Divorce: Child Custody, Access, and Parenting Plans

CLEO Family Law Series, February 2012

CLEO family law offers an informational manual with legal information concerning child custody and access during separation and divorce.

A Tale of Two Canadas – Implementing Rights in Early Childhood

Child Care Advocacy Association of Canada & Coalition of Child Care Advocates of BC, February 2011

This report documents Canada’s weak public policies for young children and their families. Outlines Canadian commitments to families with young children, examines Canada on an international scale, highlights public input and recommendations for improving public support for the early years, critiques Canada’s public reporting, and concludes with recommendations.

Economic Aspects of the Development and Prevention of Criminality among Children and Youth

The Vancouver Board of Trade, September 2010

A Sequel to the 2006 Kids ‘N Crime Report, this paper calls for investment in the areas of early childhood development and learning, parent education, learning disabilities, ADHD, FAS, aggression, trauma, high school graduation and aboriginal youth to prevent youth criminality and the high human and economic costs associated with it.

Getting the Government We Want, Getting the Government We Deserve

Armine Yalnizyan, Child Care Advocacy Association of Canada Annual General Meeting Keynote, September 2010

Brief on the case for public investment when the political climate is focused on debt reduction.

Early Learning and Care Impact Analysis

The Centre for Spatial Economics, August 2010

Examines the benefits and costs of the early learning and care system in Ontario proposed by the Pascal report.

Environmental Scan of Ministries of Education Involvement in Early Care and Learning

Coalition of Child Care Advocates of BC, Early Childhood Educators of BC, July 2010

Provides an overview of current developments and activities underway through provincial/territorial ministries of education including information on full-day kindergarten, inclusion supports, play-based learning, staff education requirements, and funding allocations.

With Our Best Future in Mind: Implementing Early Learning in Ontario

Charles E. Pascal, Special Advisor on Early Learning, June 2009

Ontario action plan for implementation of full-day learning for 4- and 5-year-olds.

KIDS ‘N CRIME Report on the Development and Prevention of Criminality Among Children and Youth

The Vancouver Board of Trade, October 2006

Discusses factors that can contribute to the development of criminality and recommends preventive measures in the areas of prenatal and postnatal environments, education and learning, transition-to-adolescence and substance abuse.


The Childcare Support Gap 2014

Family and Child Care Trust – Creating a Family Friendly UK, 2014

A review of the current childcare support systems in the United Kingdom, following a discussion about proposed Government programs to be implemented in 2015 and 2016. The report offers potential challenges and recommendations to new childcare support systems.

Do Highly Educated Women Choose Smaller Families?

Moshe Hazan & Hosny Zoabi, Centre for Economic Policy Research, UK, October 2011

Presents evidence on the cross-sectional relationship between fertility and women’s education in the U.S and compared to Western Europe.

EFA Global Monitoring Report 2010, Reaching the marginalized

UNESCO, 2010

Report on strides to achieving education for all and global development, including the impact of the recession.



Women and the Criminal Justice System, Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report

Tina Hotton Mahony, Statistics Canada, April 2011

This chapter of Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report (Sixth Edition) explores the prevalence and nature of female victimization, female criminality as well as the processing of female offenders through the criminal justice system in Canada.

The Funding Requirement and Impact of the “Truth in Sentencing Act” on the Correctional System in Canada

Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer, June 2010

Estimation of the costs associated with the implementation of a sentence reforming bill, C-25, the “Truth in Sentencing Act”. Includes costs related to women inmates, parolees and those in community corrections.

Criminological Highlights

The Centre of Criminology, University of Toronto, February 2010

Evidence that incarceration does not reduce the probability of recidivism, first-time imprisonment of offenders increases likelihood they will re-offend and mandatory penalties do not affect crime rates.


Gender Report Card on the International Criminal Court 2011

Women’s Initiative for Gender Justice, November 2011

Assesses the implementation by the International Criminal Court (ICC) of the Rome Statute, Rules of Procedure and Evidence (RPE) and Elements of Crimes (EoC) and in particular their gender mandates, in the nine years since the Rome Statute came into force.

Diversity and Inclusion


Diversity through Inclusive Practice: An Evolving Toolkit for Creating Inclusive Processes, Spaces & Events

FemNorthNet & DAWN Canada, 2014

This toolkit was made to help out organizations and individuals in carrying out events that facilitate the inclusion of all, regardless of age, gender, sexual orientation, ability, heritage, and culture. This toolkit provides information about budgeting, choosing a location, creating accessible materials, booking support services, and more. It also provides samples on forms to gather information on accommodations of needs, a sample care provider contract, and an accessible seating guide.

Diversity through Inclusive Practice: The Toolkit Checklist

FemNorthNet & DAWN Canada, 2014

This toolkit checklist was made for organizations and individuals hosting events to make sure that they facilitate the inclusion of all regardless of age, gender, sexual orientation, ability, heritage, and culture. It provides a checklist that you can track to see if you have the required inclusion measures wanted for your event and also provides suggestions. Some of the topics gone over are LBGTQ+, budgeting for inclusion, Indigenous Peoples, finding a location, setting up, and allergies.

Gender Equality, Analysis and Policy


Women in Canada: A Gender-Based Statistical Report - Senior Woman

Statistics Canada, Tamara Hudon & Anne Milan, 2016

This report looks at many aspects related to senior women in Canada, such as their socio-demographic characteristics, life expectancy, living arrangements, social participation, internet use, health assistance with daily living and leading causes of death, labour force participation and income.

The Best and Worst Places to be a Women in Canada 2015: The Gender Gap in Canada’s 25 Biggest Cities

Kate McInturff & Courtney Lockhart, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, July 2015

This report provides an annual measure of the gender gaps that exist in communities across Canada. Each city is ranked based on a comparison of how men and women are faring in five different areas: economic security, leadership, health, personal security, and education.

Female population, Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report

Anne Milan, Statistics Canada, March 2015

This chapter of Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report (seventh edition) introduces the socio-demographic and ethnocultural characteristics of the female population in Canada. Topics include share of the population, age structure, regional differences, residential mobility, Aboriginal identity, immigrant status, visible minority status, marital status, language, and religion.

Women and Girls in Canada: Presentation to the Social Trends, Policies and Institutions Deputy Ministers’ Policy Conference

Status of Women Canada, February 2015

An internal report by Status of Women Canada, obtained by CBC News under the Access to Information Act. The report indicates that Canada is falling behind other developed countries on women’s equality issues. Areas of analysis include education and skills training, employment and economic prosperity, leadership and democratic participation, and violence and sexual harassment.

Regress Trumps Progress: Canadian Women, Feminism and the Harper Government

Sylvia Bashevkin, July 2012

Overview of the progress achieved by organized feminism under a succession of Liberal federal governments, and through the mobilization of women’s group against policies proposed by Progressive Conservative majorities.

Changing the Long-Form Census – It’s Impact on Women’s Equality in Canada

Standing Committee on the Status of Women, February 2011

Report of the Status of Women Committee’s study on the cancellation of the mandatory long form census and its impact on women’s equality in Canada, as well as the removal of questions on unpaid work.

Reality Check: Women in Canada and the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action Fifteen Years On A Canadian Civil Society Response

Canadian Labour Congress & FAFIA, December 2010

Response to the Canadian government’s submission to the UN CSW on progress towards achieving Beijing platform goals. Endorsed by YWCA Canada.

CANADA’S RESPONSE to the Questionnaire on Implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (1995) and the Outcome of the Twenty-Third Special Session of the General Assembly (2000)

Government of Canada, 2010

The government of Canada’s official report to the UN Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) on progress towards achieving Beijing platform goals.

Towards Gender Responsive Budgeting: Rising to the Challenge of Achieving Gender Equality – Recommendations

Report of the Standing Committee on the Status of Women, February 2009

27 recommendations based on the 2008 Committee report on implementing gender-based analysis in federal budgeting.

Fairness for Women: Action Plan of the New Democrat Caucus

New Democratic Party of Canada, 2009

NDP’s platform on issues facing women in Canada including fairness, affordability, equal opportunity, equal pay, standard of living and freedom to live without fear.

The Pink Book: A Policy Framework for Canada’s Future Volume III

Liberal Women’s Caucus, 2009

Liberal Women’s Caucus policy recommendations to the Liberal Party on women in the economy, women's health and safety, and equality.

Towards Gender Responsive Budgeting: Rising to the Challenge of Achieving Gender Equality

Report of the Standing Committee on the Status of Women, June 2008

Report of the House of Commons Standing Committee on the status of women calling for the implementation of gender budget analysis (GBA) at the federal level. Provides background information on the status of GBA in the Treasury Board Secretariat, the Privy Council Office and Finance Canada. Includes international lessons learned in the area of gender responsive budget initiatives.

Submission to the Standing Committee on the Status of Women

Armine Yalnizyan, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, March 2008

Response to the 2008 fiscal budget with regard to its impact on women and the need for economic equality for women in Canada.

The Pink Book: A Policy Framework for Canada’s Future Volume II

Liberal Women’s Caucus, 2007

Policy recommendations on VAW, housing, Aboriginal women, immigrant and refugee women and rural women.

Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report Fifth Edition

Statistics Canada, March 2006

Presents data related to women's family status, health, education, employment, unpaid work, income, economic well-being and criminal justice. Includes comprehensive information and statistics on immigrant women, women in a visible minority, Aboriginal women, senior women and women with disabilities.

Step it Up: The Young Women’s guide to influencing public policy

Power camp National, 2006

This zine catered towards young women provides information on navigating policy and social change on a systemic level. This zine provides links to other resources as well establishes ways in which young women can get involved in change such as: voting, petitions, getting involved with research institutions, political consumerism, direct action, guerilla theatre etcetera.

The Pink Book: A Policy Framework for Canada’s Future Volume I

Liberal Women’s Caucus, 2006

Policy recommendations to improve the social and economic conditions of women.

Vibrant Communities: Gender and Poverty Project – Gender Analysis Tools

Toby Goldberg Leong, Catherine Lang, & Marina Biasutti, March 2004

This toolkit was developed as part of the Gender and Poverty Project, which looks to apply gender analysis to community-based, comprehensive poverty reduction work. The toolkit explains how to use gender analysis in communities and poverty reduction work. It includes definitions for gender analysis, questions to ask in a gender analysis, and methods that can be used to do gender analysis.


Schools in Transition: A guide for supporting Transgender Students in K-12 Schools

Human Rights Campaign Foundation and Contributors, 2014

This guide offers statements, recommendations and resources based on data, research and best practices that have been tested in the field, as well as narratives of real experiences from students, parents, caregivers and educators. These statements, recommendations and resources are geared towards offering strategies for building upon policies that respond to the dynamics that affect transgender students’ experiences in school (K-12).

The Global Gender Gap Report 2011

Ricardo Hausmann, Laura D. Tyson, Saadia Zahidi, World Economic Foru, 2011

Annual publication, which provides a framework for capturing the magnitude of gender disparities around the world and a tool for benchmarking and tracking gender inequalities.

The Global Gender Gap Report 2010

Ricardo Hausmann, Laura D. Tyson and Saadia Zahidi, World Economic Forum, 2010

Annual publication which provides a framework for capturing the magnitude of gender disparities around the world and a tool for benchmarking and tracking gender inequalities.

The World's Women 2010: Trends and Statistics

United Nations, 2010

Provides data documenting progress for women worldwide in eight key areas: population and families, health, education, work, power and decision-making, violence against women, environment and poverty.

Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action

Fourth World Conference on Women, United Nations, 1995

The agenda for women’s empowerment to advance the goals of equality, development and peace for all women everywhere from the 1995 Beijing Conference. Includes comprehensive recommendations on actions to be taken in regards to these strategic objectives by Governments, the international community and civil society.

The Global Gender Gap Index 2009 rankings: Comparisons with 2008, 2007 and 2006

Rank of countries based on magnitude of gender-based disparities from the World Economic Forum.

Girls and Children


Girls in Canada Today – National Opinion Poll & Report on the Status of Girls

Girls Action Foundation, March 2011

Report discussing issues, challenges, opportunities and equality related to girls in Canada, based on results of a public opinion poll, statistics and a literature review.

In the Best Interests of the Girl Child Phase II Report

Alliance of Five Research Centres on Violence, January 2002

Comprehensive report on the girl child on topics including sexual harassment, racism, prostitution and violence.


Because I am a Girl: The State of the World's Girls 2010 - Digital and Urban Frontiers

Plan International, 2010

Examines the opportunities and dangers of cities and new technologies through case studies, girls’ voices, expert opinion and original research. Includes recommendations to those in authority at international, national and local levels to ensure that cities and the internet are safe and girl-friendly.

Because I am a Girl: Girls in the global economy

Plan International, 2009

Focus on the state of girls within the context of the global economy, calling for action and investments in girls in the developing world.

Growing up in North America: The Economic Well-being of Children in Canada, the United States, and Mexico

CCSD, Annie E. Casey Foundation, Red Por Los Derechos de la Infancia en Mexico & Population Reference Bureau, 2008

Demographic profile of children in North America introducing measuring and monitoring of child well-being based on health, safety and economic security.

Health and Wellbeing


Trans and Nonbinary Youth Inclusivity in Sexual Health: Guidelines for sexual health service providers and educators

Planned Parenthood Toronto, 2016

This guideline is to help sexual health service providers and educators to provide a more inclusive environment for trans and nonbinary youth that they work with. It provides knowledge and information on trans identities so that health providers can make trans and non-binary youth feel more welcome and thus more likely to use their services. Some of the guidelines are gender neutral washrooms, inclusive language, inclusion of LBGTQ staff and safer sex.

List of Abortion Clinics in Canada

Abortion Rights Coalition of Canada, September 2015

This is document provides a complete list of surgical abortion clinics across Canada, including hospitals with a dedicated abortion clinic or women’s health clinics. This document also includes gestational limits where known.

Caring for Yourself is a Radical Act: Self-Care Guide for Youth Working in Community

Farrah Khan, Pomegranate Tree Group, Laidlaw Foundation, ArtReach Toronto, June 2015

This guide was developed for youth workers after speaking with community members and learning about their self-care strategies, questions and challenges. The guide combines information about trauma and self-care with practices and exercises that can be used in daily life.

Healthcare in Canada: What makes us sick?

Canadian Medical Association Town Hall Report, July 2013

An enriching study based on six public town halls conducted across the nation that focused on poverty as a major social determinant and the biggest barrier to good health. It presents extensive recommendations for government to take action on addressing poverty, inadequate housing, nutrition and food security and early childhood development.

Social Determinants of Health: The Canadian Facts

J. Mikkonen & D. Raphael, York University School of Health Policy and Management, 2010

Presents inequities in health and the policy implications, based on conditions of Aboriginal status, disability, early life, education, employment, gender, food insecurity, health services, housing, income, race, social exclusion, and social safety nets.

Community Vitality

K. Scott, Institute of Wellbeing, June 2009

Focusing on community vitality, social engagement, social support and community safety, social norms and values in Canadian communities.

Healthy Populations

R. Labonte, N. Muhajarine, B. Winquist & J. Quail, Institute of Wellbeing, June 2009

Focusing on health in Canada. Examines health indicators, mental health, lifestyle and behavior, health care services, and Aboriginal people’s health.

How are Canadians Really Doing?

Institute of Wellbeing, June 2009

Focus on Living Standards, Healthy Populations and Community Vitality.

Living Standards

A. Sharpe & J. Arsenault, Institute of Wellbeing, June 2009

Focus on living standards of Canadians from 1981 to 2008, examining economic security and trends and distribution of income and wealth.

Health and Wellbeing — Maternal Health


Countdown to 2015 Decade Report (2000–10): Taking Stock of Maternal, Newborn, and Child Survival

Z. Bhutta et al., The Lancet, 2010

Review of the progress on interventions in 68 countries to achieve the Millennium Development Goals for child mortality and maternal health.

Health and Wellbeing — Mental Health


Trauma Matters: Highlights of Trauma-informed Practices in Women’s Substance Use Services

The Jean Tweed Centre, 2013

This is a comprehensive guide for service providers on how to provide trauma-informed care to women in substance use treatment. Signs and impacts of trauma are discussed and concepts in trauma-informed care are given.

Toward Recovery & Well-Being – A Framework for a Mental Health Strategy for Canada

Mental Health Commission of Canada, November 2009

Collection of commentary and feedback on the proposed goals for a comprehensive approach to mental health and mental illness that fosters recovery for people living with mental health problems and illnesses while promoting the mental health and well-being of the entire population.

Changing Directions, Changing Lives: The Mental Health Strategy for Canada

Mental Health Commission of Canada, April 2007, April 2007

Report on the Mental Health Commission that tackles a broad range of issues and presents extensive recommendations for change to improve mental health and well-being and create a collective mental health system.

Out of the Shadows at Last: Transforming Mental Health, Mental Illness and Addiction Services in Canada Part 1

Final Report of The Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology (Senators Kirby and Keon), May 2006

Part 1 of the Comprehensive “Kirby Report” on mental health and addiction services organization and delivery that laid the foundation for the national Mental Health Commission.

Out of the Shadows at Last: Transforming Mental Health, Mental Illness and Addiction Services in Canada Part 2

Final Report of The Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology (Senators Kirby and Keon), May 2006

Part 2 of the Comprehensive “Kirby Report” on mental health and addiction services organization and delivery that laid the foundation for the national Mental Health Commission.

Housing and Homelessness


Still Dying on the Streets: Homeless Deaths in British Columbia, 2006-2014

Street Corner Media Foundation, Sean Condon, 2016

This report looks at homeless deaths from 2006 to 2014 in British Columbia. It provides reasons for the increase of deaths that homeless people are experiencing such as the lack of affordable housing and inadequate harm reduction services. This report provides recommendations that should be implemented to stop these preventable deaths from occurring.

Best Practices Guideline for Ending Women’s and Girl’s Homelessness

All Our Sisters, April 2015

This guideline synthesizes existing literature in order to develop best practices for ending homelessness for women and girls. The report includes general recommendations as well as recommendations that are population specific for ending homelessness.

Linking Services to Outcomes: A Report on the Relationship between Child Welfare Services and Youth Homelessness in Canada for the YWCA Canada

YWCA Canada and The Public Good Initiative, April 2015

A report outlining the relationship between the Canadian child welfare system and the rising rates of youth homelessness. It seeks to challenge the overall structure of the homelessness narrative in Canada in addition to informing potential policy alternatives.

Beyond Housing First: A Holistic Response to Family Homelessness in Canada

Amanda Noble, Raising the Roof, 2015

This report provides an overview of Housing First as a means of early intervention for families experiencing homelessness. It also looks at the root causes of homelessness such as affordable housing, income, food security, discrimination, and violence. Interviews with both Housing First participants and front-line workers were conducted.

Child and Family Homelessness: Building a comprehensive framework to address child and family homelessness in Canada: Phase 1, an environmental scan

Amanda Noble, Raising the Roof, March 2014

This report provides a preliminary framework for early intervention and prevention of family homelessness. It explores the causes of family homelessness, Raising the Roof’s Child and Family Homelessness Initiative, and recommendations for addressing family homelessness in Canada.

Housing 4 All: One Pager

Community Action Group on Homelessness, 2014

This document presents the major factors in Canada being on the cusp of an Affordable Housing crisis such as Federal Investments, less affordable cities/towns and long wait lists. The document provides information on what is needed on the part of the government as well as provides information on how you can help.

The state of Homelessness in Canada 2013

S. Gaetz, J. Donaldson, T. Ritcher, & T. Gulliver, Homeless Hub, 2013

This report draws data based on the structural and systemic causes of homelessness. It provides an analysis on how different provinces have responded to issues of inadequate housing, insecure income and precarious labour market trends. Recommendations made from an evidence-based approach to ending homelessness in Canada.

Youth homelessness in Canada: Implications for policy and practice

S. Gaetz, B. O’Grady, K. Bussieri, J. Karabanow, A. Marsolais, The homeless hub, 2013

This report addresses the structural inequalities that youth face and focuses on non-traditional methods of interventions to prevent homelessness among the youth population. It compares preventative approaches used by other countries that have successfully reduced youth homelessness.

At Home/Chez Soi Interim Report

P. Goering, S. Veldhuizen, A. Watson, C. Adair, B. Kopp, E. Latimer & A. Ly, Mental Health Commission, September 2012

A nation-wide research project addresses the effectiveness and benefits of a Housing First approach, which prioritizes those who experience mental health/ illness problems and homeless and impoverished.

Projet chez soi – Rapport provisoire

P. Goering, S. Veldhuizen, A. Watson, C. Adair, B. Kopp, E. Latimer et A. Ly, Mental Commission de la santé mentale du Canada, September 2012

Ce projet de recherche national étudie l’efficacité et les avantages de l’approche Logement d’abord, qui donne la priorité aux personnes aux prises avec un problème de santé mentale, l’itinérance et la pauvreté.

A Plan, Not a Dream: How to End Homelessness in 10 Years

Canadian Alliance to End Homelessness, April 2012

Provides a framework for community-based, comprehensive plans to end homelessness, highlighting the key components of: planning; data, research and best practice; coordinated system of care; income; emergency prevention; systems prevention; housing-focused outreach; rapid re-housing; housing support services; and permanent housing.

Gender Matters: Building strength in reconciliation

Native Women’s Association of Canada & Justice for Girls, 2012

Contains the themes and recommendations that emerged from five “Arrest the Legacy: from residential schools to prisons” dialogues across the country, aiming to promote greater futures for young Aboriginal women and girls who are intergenerational survivors of residential schools and in conflict with the law.

A Place to Rest” The Role of Transitional Housing in Ending Homelessness for Women: A Photovoice Project

S. Fotheringham, C. A. Walsh, A. Burrowes & A. McDonald, 2011

Presents unique insights from photovoice participatory research designed to identify the role of transitional housing in ending homelessness for women, highlighting women’s experiences of homelessness, their pathways into homelessness and how this can inform how the Housing First model is translated into practice. Additionally offers opportunity to evaluate women’s once permanently housed.

Coming Together: Homeless Women, Housing and Social Support – With a special focus on the experiences of Aboriginal women and transwomen

The Wellesley Institute, May 2010

This report offers findings from an arts-based, participatory action research project focusing on support networks for Aboriginal women and transwomen who are homeless or have experienced homelessness. The project team provides recommendations for service providers and operates from an anti-oppressive, empowerment perspective.

Building Foundations: Building Futures – Ontario’s Long Term Affordable Housing Strategy

Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, Government of Ontario, 2010

Report on Ontario’s commitment to building affordable housing, municipal and provincial coordination, the need for federal partnership, enhancing tenant and client services and helping victims of domestic violence.

Yellowknife Homelessness Report Card 2008

Yellowknife Homelessness Coalition, 2009

A profile of homelessness in Yellowknife and introduces organizations that work to reduce the impact of homelessness in the city.

Better Off in a Shelter? A Year of Homelessness and Housing among Status Immigrant, Non-Status Migrant, and Canadian-Born Families

E. Paradis, S. Novac, M. Sarty, & J. D. Hulchanski, July 2008

Study of women and their families living in Toronto shelters, comparing experiences of Canadian-born and women who have come as immigrants, refugees or migrants.

More than Bricks and Mortar: A Rights-based Strategy to Prevent Girl Homelessness in Canada

A. Czapska, A. Webb & N. Taefi, May 2008

Social justice-driven report based on the individual and collective experiences of girls and young women, as a response to a list of violations of their human rights; articulates needs to happen in order to restore freedom, dignity and safety in their lives and prevent girl homelessness, with particular call to ensure freedom from male violence.

“You Just Blink and It Can Happen”: A Study of Women’s Homelessness North of 60

Four Worlds Centre for Development Learning for Qulliit Nunavut Status of Women, Council YWCA of Yellowknife, Yellowknife Women’s Society and Yukon Status of Women’s Council, November 2007

Reports on the incidence and impact of homelessness among Northern women by mapping the determinants of Northern women’s homelessness; the impacts of homelessness among them; the policy and bureaucratic practice environment related to homelessness up North; and the service environment designed to reduce homelessness and to address its consequences on women and their families in the Territories.

Aboriginal women and homelessness: An issue paper

Native Women’s Association of Canada (NWAC), for the National Aboriginal Women’s Summit, June 2007

Overview of the facts behind the over-representation of Aboriginal people in the homeless population in Canada – particularly in the urban setting, the personal and structural factors that are related to homelessness, the unique impacts on women as well as the underlying shelter needs, the lack of cultural sensitivity in shelter services as well as their systematic underfunding. The briefing paper also offers some policy recommendations to tackle the issues raised.

Women’s Homelessness Research Bulletin

Sistering, 2007

Additional data from the Street Health Report 2007 of homeless women in Toronto, highlighting impact of homelessness on women’s health, patterns of homelessness, income, childcare and shelter.

Report of the UN Special Rapporteur on adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living

M. Kothari to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR), February 2005

Progress report that expands the original emphasis on women’s right to adequate housing to examine the interrelated issues of land, property and inheritance as well as other human rights, such as the rights to water and to health, in order to provide a more comprehensive and indivisible analysis of women’s right to adequate housing.

Voices: Women, poverty and homelessness in Canada

R. Neal for the National Anti–Poverty Organization (NAPO), May 2004

Research report designed to give voice to homeless women from three Canadian cities (Ottawa, Halifax and Vancouver) on their socioeconomic pathways to homelessness, their experiences on the street, and their aspirations for the future.

Health Status of Homeless Women: An Inventory of Issues

Ontario Women’s Health Council, September 2002

Presents a list of health issues impacting homeless women and illustrates the demographic characteristics of homeless women in Ontario, their particular health challenges, as well as the obstacles they encounter in accessing acute, preventative, mental health and other kinds of health-related services.

Common Occurrence: The Impact of Homelessness on Women’s Health, Phase II: Community Based Action Research, Final Report Executive Summary

Sistering, June 2002

Documents the impact of homelessness on women’s health and the response of Toronto’s health care system including the role of “hidden homelessness” in women’s experience.

On her Own: Young Women and Homelessness in Canada (2002)

Canadian Housing & Renewal Association, March 2002

Explores the causes, demographics and patterns of homelessness among young women aged 12 to 24 in Canada based on study reports for 8 cities emphasizing gender and age-specific challenges (including sexual violence, pregnancy, service gaps for mid-teens, minors and the child welfare system). Includes suggestions for change in services and programs, and policy recommendations.

Women and Housing in Canada: Barriers to Equality (2002)

Centre for Equality Rights in Accommodation (CERA),, 2002

Reports on structural challenges affecting gender equality through critical examination of federal policies, including housing — with particular attention to Aboriginal women’s unique housing challenges — and income support programs; outlines specific recommendations for each policy area explored.

No room of her own: A literature review on women and homelessness (1996)

S. Novac, D. J. Brown & C. Bourbonnais, November 1996

Offers an extensive review of the literature on women and homelessness in Canada, starting from the premise that homelessness has long been viewed as a primarily male experience, thus obscuring gender in much of the research on the topic. Includes a look at the role of violence against women, health factors, and shelter services, and provides overview of regional reports on women’s homelessness in Canada as well as recommendations for future research.

Turning the Key: Assessing Housing and Related Supports for Persons Living with Mental Health Problems and Illnesses

Community Support and Research Unit of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health and the Canadian Council on Social Development

A comprehensive national scan of the current housing and community supports for people living with mental health problems and/or illness in Canada. Includes recommendations for policy planning.

Human Trafficking


Human Trafficking in Calgary: Informing a Localized Response

L. Quarterman, J. Kaye & J. Winterdyk, ACT Alberta, March 2012

Documents how Calgary is addressing the rights and needs of trafficked persons and highlights challenges facing agencies and organizations in providing appropriate responses. Concludes with recommendations including increased consultation and coordination among service providers, awareness raising campaigns and specialized training to support improved victim assistance.

An Exploration of Promising Practices in Response to Human Trafficking in Canada

N. Barrett, International Centre for Criminal Law Reform, 2012

Identifies and explores promising practices to prevent human trafficking and provide support for adaptation by Canadian Federal/ Territorial/ Provincial (“FTP”) governments to better address human trafficking in Canada.

Towards Human Trafficking Prevention: National And International Expert Group Meetings Final Report

The International Centre for Criminal Law Reform and Criminal Justice Policy, May 2011

Presents conclusions and recommendations from national and international expert group meetings on the prevention of human trafficking, including guidelines and possible elements for a Canadian human trafficking prevention framework.

Immigration and Immigrant Women


Immigration Detention Statistics 2015

Canadian Council for Refugees, 2016

This statistics report covers immigration detention statistics in Canada. These statistic do not cover all people detained as some are released by the Canada Border Services Agency before they are brought before the Immigration Refugee Board for detention review.

Unprotected, Unrecognized Canadian Immigration Policy and Violence Against Women, 2008-2013

Migrant Mothers Project, Rupaleem Bhuyan, BethanyOsborne, Sajedeh Zahraei, and Sarah Tarshis, 2014

This report looks at how immigration and refugee policies impact the safety of immigrants who have precarious status. It provides an outlook on how immigration policy changes are impacting how community based organization work with women and precarious immigration status, specifically women who are seeking safety from violence. This report also provides recommendations for the government to take to address this issue.

International — United Nations


The Millennium Development Goals Report 2010

United Nations, 2010

Assessment of the progress towards the MDGs set out in 2000 to be achieved by 2015.



The Labour Market Agreements: What Did They Really Do?

Caledon Institute of Social Policy, Donna E. Wood and Brigid Hayes, 2016

This paper looks at the Labour Market Agreements from 2008 to 2014 that the federal government made to provinces and territories to support labour market programs and employment services for disadvantaged Canadians. It recommends that Canada is still in need of Labour Market Agreement type programming.

Dignity for All: A National Anti-Poverty Plan for Canada

Dignity for All Campaign, Canada Without Poverty, Citizens for Public Justice, January 2015

This document outlines a national anti-poverty strategy and policy recommendations. Areas of focus include income security, housing and homelessness, health, food security, early childhood education and care, jobs and employment.

Dignity For All: A National Anti-Poverty Plan for Canada

Canada without Poverty, Citizens for Public Justice, 2015

An anti-poverty plan that aims to make a meaningful difference in the lives of low-income people in Canada. An overview of the federal government’s role in poverty reduction is provided. Key areas of focus include income and security, housing and homelessness, health, food security, jobs and employment, and early childhood education and care.

Realizing Our Potential: Ontario’s Poverty Reduction Strategy, 2014-2019

Government of Ontario, 2014

A report on the provincial government’s renewed effort to reduce poverty in Ontario. Emphasis is placed on children and youth, employment and income security, homelessness, housing, and evidence-based policy.

Government Response to the Report of the HUMA Committee, entitled Federal Poverty Reduction Plan: Working in Partnership Towards Reducing Poverty in Canada

Government of Canada, 2011

Outlines the federal government’s commitment to labour market attachment through skills and training programs, and provincial and territorial transfers, as a strategic response to poverty.

Federal Poverty Reduction Plan: Working in Partnership Towards Reducing Poverty in Canada

Report of the Standing Committee on Human Resources, Skills and Social Development and the Status of Persons with Disabilities, November 2010

With information from research and stakeholder consultations, this report provides a statistical profile of poverty, an overview of related issues including physical and mental health, food security, housing, homelessness and the socio-economic costs of poverty. Presents poverty reduction strategies in Canada, Ireland and the United Kingdom. Makes recommendations for the development of a federal poverty reduction plan that involves working with other levels of government, Aboriginal stakeholders and community organizations to reduce poverty and increase labour force participation rates.

Government Response to the Final Report of the Standing Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology’s Subcommittee on Cities Entitled, In from the Margins: A Call to Action on Poverty, Housing and Homelessness

The Government of Canada, September 2010

The federal government’s response to the In from the Margins (Senate 2009) states that the best long-term strategy to fighting poverty is the sustained employment of Canadians.

BILL C-545: Act to Eliminate Poverty in Canada

Tony Martin, June 2010

Private Member’s Bill tabled by NDP, Bloc and Liberal MPs calling for the establishment of a national strategy to eliminate poverty and promote social inclusion, and for the Office of the Poverty Elimination Commissioner independent of government.

Welfare Incomes 2009

National Council of Welfare, 2010

Presents Canadian welfare income statistics through a comparison of family types. The report calls for continued government poverty reduction strategies such as universal child care.

In from the Margins: A Call to Action on Poverty, Housing and Homelessness

Report of the Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology, Subcommittee on Cities (Senator Eggleton, Chair, Senator Segal, Vice-Chair), December 2009

Report on the social conditions in Canadian cities, with strong recommendations to the federal government on how to eradicate poverty and homelessness.

No Cherries Grow On Our Trees: A Social Policy Research Paper for the Take Action Project to Address Women’s Poverty and Violence Against Women

METRAC and WACT, October 2008

A province-wide reading of the links between women’s poverty violence in women’s lives. Recommendations for Ontario’s anti-poverty strategy.

Sex Trade


Condom use as situated in a risk context: women’s experiences in the massage parlour industry in Vancouver, Canada

ngrid Handlovsky, Vicky Bungay, and Kat Kolar, October 2012

This study investigates women’s experiences with condom use in the indoor sex industry in Vancouver, Canada. Categories that were analyzed include the process of condom negotiation, the availability of condoms and accessibility to information on STI, and financial vulnerability.

Negotiating Safety and Sexual Risk Reduction With Clients in Unsanctioned Safer Indoor Sex Work Environments: A Qualitative Study

Andrea Krüsi et al., June 2012

This study focuses on how unsanctioned indoor sex work environments influence safety and risk negotiation with clients during sex work transactions.

Canada (Attorney General) v. Bedford

March 2012

Ontario prostitution ruling.

Violence in the Massage Parlor Industry: Experiences of Canadian-Born and Immigrant Women

Vicky Bungay et al., 2012

This study examines and contrasts Canadian-born and immigrant women’s experiences of structural and interpersonal violence within indoor commercial sex venues.

Structure and agency: reflections from an exploratory study of Vancouver indoor sex workers

Vicky Bungay, Michael Halpin, Chris Atchison and Caitlin Johnston, January 2011

This study analyzes sex work in relation to societal structures and sex worker agency. Canadian laws are critiqued for their lack of responsiveness to the lives of workers and their exploitative and contradictory stance on sex work.

Challenges: Ottawa-area Sex Workers Speak Out

POWER (Prostitutes of Ottawa/Gatineau Work, Educate and Resist), December 2010

This report follows a community-based research initiative that engages 43 adult sex workers who explain complexities and challenges of sex work. The report explains the methodology used, situates the research by providing background information about the social, legal, and academic context of the research topic, and the remainder explains the findings.

Violence Against Women


Promising Practices to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls

The House of Commons Standing Committee on the Status of Women, June 2015

An overview of violence against women in Canada and a summary of promising practices for violence prevention. Promising practices include: raising awareness about violence against women and promoting societal change, engaging men and boys in initiatives to address violence against women, increasing access to social services, shelters and housing for women and their children, etc.

External Review into Sexual Misconduct and Sexual Harassment in the Canadian Armed Forces

Marie Deschamps, March 2015

A review of the policies, procedures, and practices concerning sexual harassment in the Canadian Armed Forces.

Who’s Who?: A Resource Guide for Women Escaping Domestic Violence

Native Women’s Association of Canada, 2015

For each province and territory in Canada, a list of contact information about transition houses, women’s emergency shelters, and crisis lines is provided for women escaping domestic violence.

Sexual Assault Policies on Campus

METRAC, October 2014

This report highlights topics and issues related to on-campus sexual assault policies. The report offers context to the issue by providing background information on sexual assault and the post-secondary experience. Challenges with current policies are discussed and progressive next-steps in policy making are considered.

The Case for a National Action Plan on Violence Against Women in Canada

Canadian Network of Women’s Shelters and Transition Houses, October 2013

This report looks at existing Canadian legislation, policies, strategies and action plans which fail to address violence against women and recommends for a robust National Action Plan. A National Action Plan which incorporates a gender-sensitive and human rights approaches to VAW and recommendations to strengthen and unify services and systems by increasing collaboration and education for systemic change.

Measuring violence against women: Statistical trends

Maire Sinha, Canada Centre for Justice Statistics, February 2013

Gender-based analysis on violence against women that focuses on diverse women’s experiences of victimization based on comprehensive data from police crime records and self-reports.

Abuse of Older Women

Report of the Standing Committee on the Status of Women, May 2012

Report on abuse of older women discussing awareness, forms of abuse, responses and prevention, promising practices and recommendations. Includes NDP supplementary opinion with a recommendation for the development of a National Elder Abuse Prevention Strategy.

Abuse of Older Women - Report of the Standing Committee on the Status of Women

Marie-Claude Morin, May 2012, M.P. Chair, May 2012

This report gives insights of expert witnesses who emphasize the greater need for raising awareness on elder abuse and push forward for supportive programs, services and resources and highlight several recommendations for preventative programs.

Violence against Women: An Exploration of the Physical and Mental Health Trends among Immigrant and Refugee Women in Canada

S. Guruge, B. Roche, and C. Catallo, February 2012

This pilot study describes trends in violence throughout the lifespan of women in the Iranian and Sri Lankan Tamil communities in Toronto who came to Canada as immigrants or refugees and resulting physical and mental health impacts.

Limits of a criminal justice response: Trends in police and court processing of sexual assault

Holly Johnson, 2012

This publication examines the declining rate of women and girls who report to police of sexual assault or other acts of sexual violence. It provides an overview of the criminal justice system and dwindling rates of convictions and sentences of offenders, which are overtly condoning violence against women but also engrained prejudicial attitudes and belief in myths, about victims that normalize and justify acts of violence.

Report on Violence Against Women, Mental Health, and Substance Use

Canadian Women’s Foundation, BC Society of Transition Houses, February 2011

This report summarizes a review of emerging trends in social services for women who have experienced violence and who have mental health and substance use concerns. The report offers information and societal context for the intersections of violence against women, mental health, and substance use, and discusses services, funding and policy gaps.

Love or Obsession: A Guide for Women Being Stalked

METRAC, March 2009

This booklet presents options and rights for women being stalked.

What you Need to Know About Stalking: A Guide for Service Providers

METRAC, March 2009

This booklet offers assistance to service providers who are supporting women who are being stalked.

You Are Not Alone: Violence, Substance Use and Mental Health- A Peer Approach to Increasing Your Safety

Ending Violence Association of BC, 2009

This toolkit is intended to promote important discussion about relationship violence and sexual assault among women who may also have mental health and/or substance use issues. It provides information on risk factors for relationship abuse and violence, risk assessment and safety planning. There is information for facilitators who are using the toolkit for a group. A list of resources is also provided.

The Ribbon and the Rose: Visual Rhetorics Against Violence to Women

Amanda Goldrick-Jones, 2004

This article examines visual images used by activist women and men in the wake of the Montreal massacre. The appropriateness of men speaking out against violence to women is explored.

Experiencing the Streets: Harassment and Perceptions of Safety among Women

Ross Macmillan, Annette Nierobisz, Sandy Welsh, August 2000

This article considers the influence of sexual harassment on perceptions of safety among women. The findings indicate that stranger harassment is more prevalent and more extensive than non-stranger harassment and that stranger harassment more strongly influences fear of victimization.

Violence Against Women — Aboriginal, First Nations, Métis & Inuit Women


Report of the inquiry concerning Canada of the Committee of the Elimination of Discrimination against Women under article 8 of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

CEDAW, United Nations, March 2015

This report finds Canada guilty of ‘grave violations’ of the human rights of Aboriginal women and girls. The CEDAW Committee provides a number of recommendations, and finds that Canada must address a failed police response and disadvantaged social and economic conditions through a comprehensive and coordinated plan.

Miykiwan Toolkit for Aboriginal Families Living Off-Reserve: Life Fact Book

Congress of Aboriginal Peoples, 2015

A family violence prevention toolkit that was put together to help improve the lives of Aboriginal families living off-reserve in Canada. The first chapter includes information on First Nations traditional and cultural practices. The second chapter is about embracing strengths, learning about family violence and when to get help. The third chapter addresses personal safety plans, starting over or deciding to stay. The final chapter talks about the importance of taking action and breaking the cycle of violence.

Miykiwan Toolkit for Aboriginal Families Living Off-Reserve: Resource Book

Congress of Aboriginal Peoples, 2015

This Toolkit provides resource information for individuals living with violence. These include emergency contact numbers as well as National, Provincial and Territorial Resource Listings and instructions on how to clear web browsers. This document includes a Toolkit bibliography where further sources of information can be found.

Miykiwan Toolkit for Aboriginal Families Living Off-Reserve: User Guide

Congress of Aboriginal Peoples, 2015

This user guide explains the function of the Toolkit as well as Information on how to Access and Use the three books, eleven fact sheets and several stand-alone documents included in the Toolkit.

Personal Safety Plan and Miykiwan Fact Sheets

Congress of Aboriginal Peoples, 2015

This set of Fact sheets provide information regarding types of violence including: Family Violence, Domestic Violence, Sexual Violence, Dating Violence, Child Violence, Senior Violence, Violence against those with Disabilities and Emotional/Psychological/Spiritual Violence. This document also provides warning/high risk signs, strategies for next steps as well as further resources. It includes a personal safety plan where individuals can collect the information needed to leave an abusive situation safely.

You Are Not Alone: A Toolkit for Aboriginal Women Escaping Domestic Violence

Native Women’s Association of Canada, 2015

This toolkit is for Aboriginal women escaping domestic violence situations. The toolkit provides background information on domestic violence, discusses early warning signs, safety planning, and advice on what to do after escaping violence.

You Are Not Alone: Safety Plan

Native Women’s Association of Canada, 2015

A resource for Aboriginal women escaping domestic violence situations. A template is provided in order to properly plan for a safe exit. Included are important checklists and space to record emergency contacts and support networks.

Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women in British Columbia, Canada

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, December 2014

This report offers a summary and critique of the context in which Indigenous women have gone missing and been murdered in Canada over the last several years. A review of the Canadian government’s response to this issue is given as well as recommendations geared towards assisting the state in strengthening efforts to protect Indigenous women’s rights.

Invisible Women: A Call to Action – A Report on Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women in Canada

Special Committee on Violence Against Indigenous Women, March 2014

In this report, the Committee seeks to identify practical, action-oriented solutions to increase safety of Aboriginal women and girls across Canada. Three main themes are explored: violence and its root causes, front-line assistance, and preventing violence against Aboriginal women and girls.

Action Plan to Address Family Violence and Violent Crimes Against Aboriginal Women and Girls

Government of Canada, 2014

A five-year action plan created by the Government of Canada in response to the recommendations of the Special Committee on Violence Against Indigenous Women. The action plan ensures that steps are taken to prevent violence, support and protect Aboriginal women and girls.

Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women: A National Operational Overview

Royal Canadian Mounted Police, 2014

This RCMP study analyzes reported incidents of missing and murdered Aboriginal women across all police jurisdictions in Canada. The data confirms the overrepresentation of missing and murdered Aboriginal women in Canada and sheds light on the circumstances of these deaths and disappearances.

Origins of Lateral Violence in Aboriginal Communities: A Preliminary Study of Student-to-Student Abuse in Residential Schools

Aboriginal Healing Foundation, 2014

This mixed method report utilizes interviews with service providers to look at the hidden and silenced legacies of the Residential School experience in order to gain a better understanding of some of the challenges facing First Nations, Inuit and Métis communities. This report focuses on student-to-student abuse and lateral violence and the implications it has for residential school survivors, their families and their communities.

The Contribution of Socio-economic Position to the Excesses of Violence and Intimate Partner Violence Among Aboriginal Versus Non-Aboriginal Women in Canada

Nihaya Daoud, Janet Smylie, Marcelo Urquia, Billie Allan, Patricia O’Campo, 2013

This study examines socio-economic position as a factor influencing rates of gender violence among Aboriginal women.

Those who take us away - Abusive policing and failures in protection of Indigenous women and girls in Northern British Columbia, Canada

Human Rights Watch, 2013

A comprehensive report on the human rights violations committed by the RCMP, against Indigenous women and girls, treatment of brutality and impunity and provides recommendations to preventing violence by addressing judiciary and institutional deficits. It addresses root causes of violence due to the historic legacy of colonialism and racism that has strained relations between Indigenous communities and Canadian state.

Report and Recommendations on Issues Related to the High Number of Murdered and Missing Women in Canada

Coordinating Committee of Senior Officials (Criminal) Missing Women Working Group, January 2012

This report presents research and recommendations to intervene and prevent further predatory homicides of women. Discusses marginalizing factors and procedures related to missing persons’ cases.

Ending Violence Against Aboriginal Women and Girls: Empowerment – A New Beginning

Standing Committee on the Status of Women, December 2011

Presents an overview of Aboriginal poverty, property and economic growth, missing and murdered Aboriginal women, community safety for Aboriginal women with a particular focus on policing, and family violence prevention and healing. Includes information on federal government initiatives and committee recommendations. The report concludes with the Dissenting Opinion of the New Democratic Party of Canada.

We are courageous and we are healing ourselves. Collaboration to End Violence: National Aboriginal Women’s Forum Report on Outcomes and Recommendations from Working Sessions

AMR Planning & Consulting, July 2011

Presents recommendations for actions to address violence against Aboriginal women and girls, which were developed by representatives from provincial and territorial government departments and agencies, national Aboriginal organizations, First Nation, Métis and Inuit communities, and community-based organizations during a forum led by the Province of British Columbia’s Ministry of Aboriginal Relations and Reconciliation (BC MARR) and the Native Women’s Association of Canada (NWAC) in June 2011.

Violent victimization of Aboriginal women in the Canadian provinces

Shannon Brennan, Statistics Canada, May 2011

Statistical report documenting Aboriginal women’s experiences of victimization, the extent of violence and the context in which it occurs.

Call into the Night: An Overview of Violence Against Aboriginal Women

Standing Committee on the Status of Women, March 2011

Findings of nation-wide consultation with stakeholders on the issue of violence against Aboriginal women. The reports discusses poverty, child welfare, missing and murdered Aboriginal women and the response of the justice system. Identified needs include support for opportunities for healing, housing and federal funding for non-profit organizations. Consultants call for the need to recognize Aboriginal women as leaders and the need for a coordinated, holistic approach to violence against women.

NWAC Community Resource Guide – What Can I Do to Help the Families of Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women and Girls?

Native Women’s Association of Canada, 2010

Awareness, policy and education initiative that addresses violence against Aboriginal women with a focus on violence that leads to the disappearance and death of Aboriginal women and girls in Canada. This guide has been prepared to share knowledge, and help communities respond and heal.

What Their Stories Tell Us: Research findings from the Sisters In Spirit initiative

Native Women’s Association of Canada, 2010

The third report on missing and murdered Aboriginal women. Presents demographic and statistical evidence, root causes and ways to move forward. Includes stories and experiences shared by families.

Voices of Our Sisters In Spirit: A Report to Families and Communities 2nd Edition

Sisters In Spirit, Native Women’s Association of Canada, March 2009

Updated 2008 report with additional information gained through interviews with participating families.

No More Stolen Sisters: The Need for a Comprehensive Response to Discrimination and Violence Against Indigenous Women in Canada

Amnesty International Canada, 2009

Highlights marginalization and inequality experienced by Indigenous women. Includes recommendations for the government of Canada and the government of British Columbia.

Voices of Our Sisters In Spirit: A Report to Families and Communities

Sisters In Spirit, Native Women’s Association of Canada, November 2008

Documents cases of missing and murdered women through interviews with participating families. Includes demographic and statistical research and identifies four key policy areas.

Aboriginal Women and Family Violence

Ipsos-Reid Corporation, July 2006

Employs qualitative data on the attitudes and opinions of Aboriginal women, both on and off reserve, on the issue of family violence and describes perceptions of incidence, coping mechanisms, perceived resources, and impacts, among other issues.

Stolen Sisters: A Human Rights Response to Discrimination and Violence against Indigenous Women in Canada

Amnesty International Canada, 2004

Discusses social issues contributing to violence against Indigenous women, including racism, poverty, marginalization, and inadequate police protection. Comprehensive recommendations for all levels of government.

NWAC Sisters in Spirit Vigils Toolkit – A Movement for Social Change

Native Women’s Association of Canada

How-to guide on hosting Sisters in Spirit Vigils to honour lost sisters and their families, and to pressure all levels of government to take action.

Violence Against Women — Cost Analyses


Selected Estimates of the Costs of Violence against Women

Centre for Research on Violence against Women and Children, 1995

Reports selected economic costs in Canada of sexual assault/rape, woman abuse in intimate partnerships and incest/child sexual assault in the policy areas of health/medicine, criminal justice, social services/education and labour/employment.


The economic dimensions of interpersonal violence

Waters, Hyder, Rajkotia, Basu, Rehwinkel, and Butchart, Department of Injuries & Violence Prevention, WHO, 2004

Economic effects of interpersonal violence, of interventions to reduce violence, and of economic conditions and policies on interpersonal violence.

Violence Against Women — Gun Control


RCMP Canadian Firearms Program Evaluation

RCMP Canadian Firearms Program, February 2010

The RCMP evaluative report on the Canadian Firearms Program, including the long gun registry, conducted by National Program Evaluation Services, completed February 2010 and released August 31, 2010.

Commissioner of Firearms - 2009 Report

RCMP Canadian Firearms Program, 2010, 2010

2009 annual report of the Canadian Firearms Program detailing prevalence and use of firearms.

Commissioner of Firearms - 2008 Report

RCMP Canadian Firearms Program, 2008

2008 annual report of the Canadian Firearms Program detailing prevalence and use of firearms.

Commissioner of Firearms – 2007 Report

RCMP Canadian Firearms Program, 2007

2007 annual report of the Canadian Firearms Program detailing prevalence and use of firearms.

Commissioner of Firearms – 2006 Report

RCMP Canadian Firearms Program, 2006

2006 annual report of the Canadian Firearms Program detailing prevalence and use of firearms.

Violence Against Women — Legal Studies


Intimate Partner Criminal Harassment through a Lens of Responsibilization

York University, Isabel Grant, 2015

This research paper applies insights of feminist scholars to address and challenge the “good victim” ideology associated with intimate partner criminal harassment. Through analyzing case law, this paper argues that elements of the offence lead to the tendency toward responsibilization and re-victimization through victim-blaming.

Study on the Experiences of Abused Women in the Family Courts in Eight Regions in Ontario

M. Dragiewicz & W. DeKeseredy, Luke’s Place, November 2008

Documents and analyzes information from advocates and abused women negotiating the family court system in eight regions of Ontario, identifying gaps in existing services.


Good practices in legislation on violence against women

UN Division for the Advancement of Women, UN Office on Drugs and Crime, May 2008

Summarizes global experts’ general guidance on and proposed framework for developing legislation on violence against women.

Violence Against Women — Shelters and Services


Shelter Voices

Canadian Network of Women’s Shelters & Transition Houses, 2016

This national survey looks at transitional houses and shelters that serve women and their children who have been affected by domestic and intimate partner abuse. It provides a snapshot that represents 234 shelters across every province and territory in Canada. This survey also provides insight on the experience, analysis and hopes of organizations, workers and program users.

Shelter Voices: A Day in the Life of Canada’s Shelter for Women Survivors of Abuse

Canadian Network of Women’s Shelters and Transition Houses, April 2015

This document provides an opportunity to learn from the voice of women and children who have experienced abuse and the shelter workers who assists them. Voices are shared from women across all provinces and territories, and through them, attention is drawn to the successes and gaps in services.

Residents of Canada’s shelters for abused women 2008

J. Sauvé & M. Burns, Juristat, May 2009

Overview of shelters offering services to abused women and their children, including numbers, characteristics of women residing, reasons for seeking support services, and types of shelters.

Transforming our Communities

Report from the Domestic Violence Advisory Council for the Minister Responsible for Women’s Issues, May 2009

Recommendations for Ontario’s services for abused women and their children, focus on access/equity, education/training, child welfare, legal response, threat assessment and risk management.

Canada’s shelters for abused women, 2005/2006

A.Taylor-Butts, Juristat, June 2007

Profiles shelters providing residential services to abused women and their children across Canada in 2005/06, and selected demographic information of service users.

Canada’s Shelters for Abused Women, 2003/04

A. Taylor-Butts, Juristat, June 2005

Profiles shelters providing residential services to abused women and their children across Canada in 2003/04, and selected demographic information of service users.

Transition Homes in Canada: National, Provincial and Territorial Fact Sheets 2003/04

S. de Léséleuc & A.Taylor-Butts, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, June 2005

Profiles of the facilities and services provided, demographics of residents.

Violence Against Women — Statistical Reports


Family Violence in Canada: A statistical profile, 2014

Statistics Canada and Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, 2016

This report provides an overview of family violence in Canada as well as trends over time. Also it provides socio-demographic risk factors linked to spousal violence, the impacts and consequences for victims and the police reporting behaviour of victims.

Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile, 2010

Statistics Canada, May 2012

Annual statistical profile with a focus on the comparative analysis of family violence incidents and other forms of violent crimes to help broaden understanding of the factors that involved in violence within the family.

Scan on Funding and Policy Initiatives to Respond to Violence Against Women

Canadian Network of Women’s Shelters & Transition Houses, January 2011

Examines federal, provincial and territorial responses to violence against women (VAW), with an emphasis on shelter and transition house, second stage, sexual assault centres and other related services, 2006-2011.

Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile

Statistics Canada, 2011

Focuses on self-reported incidents of spousal victimization. Presents information on family violence against children and youth, family violence against seniors (aged 65 years and older), and family-related homicides.

Homicide in Canada, 2008

Sara Beattie, Juristat, October 2009

Trends in homicide, types of homicide including stats on spousal homicide.

Trends in police-reported serious assault

Mia Dauvergne, Juristat, October 2009

Statistics on police-reported family violence, gender of victim and relationship to victim.

Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile 2009

Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, 2009

Profiles shelters for women and children fleeing abusive situations with fact sheets, data tables and figures examining spousal violence, family violence against children, youth and seniors (65+), and family-related homicides.

Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile 2008

Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, 2008

Focus on spousal violence in the provinces and territories. Fact sheets, data tables and figures examining family violence against children, youth, and seniors (65+), and family-related homicides.

Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile 2007

Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, 2007

Examines criminal histories of persons accused of spousal homicide or attempted spousal homicide. Presents analysis of family violence against children, youth, and seniors (65+).

Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile 2006

Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, 2006

Focus on the criminal history of persons charged with spousal violence over a 10-year timeframe (1995 to 2004). Includes reported incidence of child abuse and neglect.

Measuring Violence Against Women Statistical Trends 2006

H. Johnson, Statistics Canada, 2006

Prevalence and severity, effect and impact, risk factors, institutional and community-based responses and victims’ use of services.

Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile 2005

Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, 2005

Focus on stalking and spousal violence incidences by women and men. Analysis of family-related homicide-suicides over 40 years. Details family-related homicides and non-lethal family-related violence against children, youth and older adults (65+).

Violence Against Women — Violence Prevention - Programs, Policies and Evaluations


From the Ground Up Facilitation Guide: Community-Based Tools to Address Violence And Seek Justice

Girls Action Foundation, 2013

This workshop guide was developed for young women and program facilitators to hold discussions about how to respond to violence, increase knowledge of rights, services and community resources while using integrated feminist analysis. Activities included are organized around particular themes such as self-awareness/self-esteem, issues of violence, critical thinking/communication skills, mentorship, community action and leadership.

An estimation of the Economic Impact of Spousal Violence in Canada, 2009

T. Zhang, J. Hoddenbagh, S. McDonald, K. Scrim, Dept. of Justice, 2012

Recent study examines the wide range of economic costs associated with spousal violence in numerous jurisdictions. It estimated measurable costs at a staggering $ 7.4 billion dollars and expenditures were allocated to police, legal and court costs, healthcare and other social service sectors.

Changing Attitudes, Changing Lives: Ontario’s Sexual Violence Action Plan

Provincial government and the Ministerial Steering Committee on Violence Against Women, March 2011

Using information gathered through consultations and key expert meetings on issues such as public education, training, human trafficking, criminal justice, prevention, leadership and accountability. This Action Plan takes a coordinated and collaborative approach to prevent sexual violence and improve supports for survivors as well as implement public education campaigns, develop and deliver training and enhance the service system response while addressing the ethnic, linguistic, cultural, sexual, economic and geographical diversity of Ontario.

Preliminary evaluation of an intervention program for maltreating fathers

K. Scott & C. Crooks, Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, August 2007

Highlights the success of the Caring Dad’s program in engaging fathers who have been abusive towards their children, partners and/or the mothers of their children.

The Family Violence Initiative: Performance Report 2002-2003 & 2003-2004

Public Health Agency of Canada, 2005

An overview of the federal government’s investments and results in family violence prevention and intervention for the fiscal period April 2002 through March 2004.

Attitudinal change in participants of partner assault response (PAR) programs: A pilot project

K. Scott & L. Stewart, Research and Statistics Division, Department of Justice Canada, 2004

Examines the effectiveness of Partner Assault Response (PAR) programs in changing the attitudes of men who have been abusive towards their partners.

Men at work to end wife abuse in Quebec: A case study in claims making

J. Dankwort & R. Rausch, Violence Against Women, 2000

Highlights a number of systemic problems in responding to domestic violence and identifies three themes for a foundation of social change.

A Public Health Approach to Violence Prevention

Ontario Public Health Association, 1999

Public health strategies to prevent violence, specific recommendations for public health action.

Women's Economic Security


Employment Patterns of Families with Children

Sharanjit Uppal, May 2015

This report examines employment patterns of families with children (under the age of 16) over the period of 1976-2014, providing information on employment patterns of couple families and lone parent families. This report also examines the socioeconomic trends and changes resulting from the increased labour force participation of women.

The Opportunity Equation: Building opportunity in the face of growing income inequality

United Way Toronto, EKOS Research Associates, Neighbourhood Change Research Partnership, February 2015

This document is the first in a series of reports that make up a United Way research project titled Building Opportunity. It describes how income inequality has played out in Toronto relative to the rest of Ontario and throughout Canada.

Like Wonder Women, Goddesses & Robots: How racialized immigrant women in Toronto are impacted by and respond to employment precarity

Access Alliance: Multicultural Health and Community Services, 2014

This report is based on 30 one-on-one interviews with racialized immigrant women who are entrenched in precarious employment positions. The findings suggest that research participants face triple intersecting barriers based on gender, race, and migration while navigating the labour market.

Economic Well-being, Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report

Cara Williams, Statistics Canada, December 2010

This chapter of Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report (Sixth Edition) provides information on women’s incomes, earnings, financial security, retirement savings, education, occupations, participation in the labour force as mothers, home ownership and housing affordability, and the gender wage gap.

Paid Work, Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report Fifth Edition

Vincent Ferrao, Statistics Canada, December 2010

This chapter of Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report (Sixth Edition) examines the labour market experiences of women over time including employment and unemployment trends, part-time work, education, women with children in the labour market, self-employment, occupations, unionization, multiple job-holding and temporary work trends.

Ontario’s Growing Gap - The Role of Race and Gender

Sheila Block, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, June 2010

Analyzes how race and gender factor into income inequality. Shows Ontarians from racialized backgrounds are more likely to live in poverty, face barriers to finding a job, and receive less pay, and that sexism coupled with racial discrimination hinders racialized women’s earning power.

Women's Economic Security — Economic Policy and Impacts


Towards a More Equal Canada – A Report on Canada’s Economic & Social Inequality

Broadbent Institute, October 2012

Reflection on the issue of income inequality from the new Broadbent Institute, including a call for a societal response.

Towards a more equal Canada: A report on Canada’s economic and social inequality

Broadbent Institute, October 2012

An analysis of the root causes of economic inequality with proposed recommendations to support more egalitarian policies to help eradicate poverty.

Portraits of Families and Living Arrangements in Canada – Families, Households and Marital Status, 2011 Census of Population

Statistics Canada, September 2012

Statistical snapshots of families and living arrangements with the new addition of stepfamilies and foster children counted for the first time in 2011.

Budget 2012 – What Does it Mean for Women’s Economic Equality?

Canadian Labour Congress, May 2012

Addresses the need for a gender-based analysis of budgets suggesting to ensure potentially fruitful investments, such as childcare are not overloaded, and budgets don’t work against other efforts to foster gender equality.

A Budget for the Rest of Us – Alternative Federal Budget 2012

Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, March 2012

CCPA’s 2012 annual federal budget outlines an alternative approach to federal government spending with topics including women’s equality, aboriginal women, early childhood education and care, housing, poverty, and income inequality.

Battle of the Wages: Who gets paid more, public or private sector workers?

Toby Sanger, Canadian Union of Public Employees, Ottawa, December 2011

This study compares salaries between public and private sector occupations, including data on age, gender and region.

Generational change in paid and unpaid work

Katherine Marshall Statistics Canada Canadian Social Trends, July 2011

Examines changes in the participation in and time spent on paid work and unpaid
household work of individuals aged 20 to 29 from three generations.

Alternative Federal Budget 2011 Rethink, Rebuild, Renew A Post-Recession Recovery Plan

Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 2011

CCPA’s 2011 annual federal budget process outlines an alternative approach to federal government spending that would include Aboriginal women, early childhood education and care, housing, women’s equality, poverty action and income inequality.

The Rise of Canada’s Richest 1%

Armine Yalnizyan, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, December 2010

Examines income trends in Canada from the 1920s to present day, looking at sources of income, taxation, public policy and how they relate to today’s vast income inequality.

If Women Mattered: The Case for Federally Funded Women-Centred Community Economic Development

Women’s Economic Council, 2010

Analyzes the current state of funding for women-centred community economic development and its impact on women’s economic security.

Pension Breakdown - How The Finance Ministers Bungled Pension Reform

Monica Townson, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives

Policy paper calling for changes to the retirement income system that would guarantee an adequate basic pension income to all Canadians.

Women's Economic Security — Employment Insurance


The Plight of Young Workers

TD Economics, March 2012

Report on youth unemployment since the 2008 recession

Gender aspects of Employment Insurance presentation to the Commons Standing Committee on the Status of Women

Ken Battle, Caledon Institute of Social Policy, March 2009

Discusses how Employment Insurance discriminates against low-wage workers and women, and the need for better benefits for working age adults.

Women and the Employment Insurance Program: The Gender Impact of Current Rules on Eligibility and Earnings Replacement

M. Townson & K. Hayes, Monica Townson Associates, March 2007

Recommendations to correct gender imbalance in EI regarding wage inequalities, legislation and other issues.

Women's Economic Security — Pay Equity


It’s Time to Act: Report of the Special Pay Equity Committee

House of Commons Canada, Anita Vandenbeld, 2016

This report is done by the House of Commons special committee on pay equity that provides thirty one recommendations for addressing issues of pay equity on a federal level. One of the recommendations is to move away from the complaints-based model that places a burden on the employee and employer. Also to repeal the Public Sector Equitable Compensation Act of 2009.

Making Women Count: The Unequal Economics of Women’s Work

Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives and Oxfam Canada, Brittany Lambert & Kate McInturff, 2016

This report looks at how women in Canada and around the world are affected by inequality, through the burden of unpaid work, the undervaluing of work in female dominant fields, and the social norms that see men offered higher wages and more chances at promotion than females. This report also offers recommendations to help make the situation more equitable for women. Such as policies that support better wages, access to employment for women, child care, and to reduce the care burden on women.

The Gender Wage Gap in Ontario’s Retail Sector: Devaluing Women’s Work and Women Workers

Kendra Coulter, Angella MacEwen, and Sheetal Rawal, 2016

This report provides statistical data on an online survey to show the gender wage gap in retail. It shows that despite women outnumbering men in this occupation they are paid less for doing the same job. This report provides five recommendations that would help challenge the gender inequities in retail.

Pay Equity: A New Approach to a Fundamental Right

Pay Equity Task Force Final Report, 2004

Recommendations of the federal Pay Equity Task Force on wage inequities, legislation and implementation of pay equity.

Women's Economic Security — Poverty


Labour market trends: Poverty trends scorecard – Fact sheet series

Citizens for Public Justice, July 2013

Yearly report examines the current poverty trends through increased labour market disparities in relation to lower income earnings and diminishing job security. Identifies that government needs to make a bigger commitment to invest in employment to ensure a sustaining economic growth.

Revisiting Family Security in Insecure Times - 2011 Report Card on Child and Family Poverty in Canada

Campaign 2000, 2011

Annual report on child and family poverty from national coalition, issued every November.

2010 Report Card on Child and Family Poverty in Canada: 1989-2010

Campaign 2000, 2010

Annual report on child and family poverty from national coalition, issued every November.

Women’s Poverty and the Recession

Monica Townson, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, September 2009

Overview of women’s poverty with a focus of women’s economic security in recessions.

2009 Report Card on Child and Family Poverty in Canada

Campaign 2000, 2009

Annual report on child and family poverty from national coalition, issued every November.

Women and Disability


Fact Sheet Women with Disabilities and Housing

DAWN RAFH Canada, 2014

This fact sheet looks at how women with disabilities face significant obstacles to accessing safe, affordable and adequate housing such as facing higher levels of poverty, unemployment and being subjected to discriminatory housing practices.

Fact Sheet Women with Disabilities and Poverty

DAWN RAFH Canada, 2014

This fact sheet provides information about Canadian women who are disabled and their economic situation. It states that women with disabilities are poorer than males and that this is due to the major cut backs in Canadian social programs. Some of the reasons given are low level of education and at the bottom of the employment queue in Canada.

Fact Sheet Women with Disabilities and Violence

DAWN RAFH Canada, 2014

This fact sheet looks at violence against women with disabilities and how they experience a wider range of emotional, physical and sexual abuse. This report recommends that there should be more research done on violence against women with disabilities as there is little and has contributed to making this issue invisible.

Bridging the Gaps. Violence, Poverty & Women’s Shelters: An update on non/resources for Women with Disabilities

DAWN-RAFH Canada, November 2008

Analyzes issues affecting disabled women regarding violence, poverty, services, shelters and housing. Provides recommendations and future directions.

Women and Leadership


The Economic Leadership and Prosperity of Canadian Women

The House of Commons Standing Committee on the Status of Women, April 2015

This report summarizes findings of a study on economic leadership and prosperity of Canadian women. It addresses challenges that women continue to face such as access to education, unpaid work, the gender pay gap, access to child care, misogyny and violence, and poverty and living conditions.

Voting Guide for Young Aboriginal Women

Native Women's Association of Canada and Elections Canada, January 2015

This guide helps young Aboriginal women understand the electoral system in Canada. It explains the voting process in Canada so participants will feel more confident and informed when going to vote. Activities on the topics of voting and civic participation are included.

The Essential Guide to Being Elected: Increasing Women’s Representation

Equal Voice and Carleton University, 2015

This report is for women who are thinking of running for office. Background information about municipal, provincial, and federal governments, candidacy, and legislature is provided.

Voters Guide on Women’s Issues - Election 2015

International Women’s Rights Projects, 2015

A guide to inform voters about issues regarding women in Canada and to provide focused questions to pose to candidates in the 2015 Federal election. Issues discussed include early childhood education and care, health care, violence against women, Indigenous women, housing, economic equality, political participation, refugee women and temporary foreign workers, women and disabilities, and rights of trans people.

Women in Parliament

Julie Cool, Library of Canada, July 2010

Discusses women in Canadian and international parliaments, parties’ roles in selection of women candidates, effects of the electoral system on women’s representation and how to make parliament a women-friendly environment.

Ballot Box Barriers: An action plan for engaging more women in the municipal democratic process

Association of Manitoba Municipalities, June 2010

Identifies barriers and possible solutions to bring more women into municipal government. Looks at initiatives promoting women in government across Canada and explores the role of women in Canadian and global governments.

Women In The House - A Reader on New Brunswick Women in the Legislative Assembly

N.B. Advisory Council on the Status of Women, May 2010

Profiles women in the New Brunswick legislature and includes information on what women, political parties and governments can do to get more women involved in politics.

Getting to 30% by 2026

Federation of Canadian Municipalities, 2006

Based on discussions from across Canada in 2005-2006, this report lists strategies for municipal councils to further the involvement of women in municipal government.

Status Quo? The Unfinished Business of Feminism in Canada

The National Film Board of Canada

This guide for educators and facilitators uses the film Status Quo? The Unfinished Business of Feminism in Canada, as a tool to teach about feminism, gender constructs, Canadian history, and advocacy. A fact sheet about the history of feminism in Canada is given, along with discussion questions, and group activities that are based on the film.